NON-TYPICAL EXAMPLES: * a system of home plants * the plan of a day * the letter written by you * palace from a sand constructed by a child * walking trip to a wood by all family * administration in your firm * a city * the path in a wood * the friendship between two people
EXAMPLES FROM THE FIELD "WORK BY COMPUTER": * a textual file typed by you * the system of files and catalogues on the hard disk * a big complex program * the operating system * the World-Wide Web * a Web-server
ADDITIONAL STRUCTURE ELEMENTS:
* goal of the object * the system, the object be placed * evolution of the object
DIRECT QUESTIONS and ACTIONS
ADOPTED QUESTIONS AND ACTIONS:
Artificial object AS (controlling object IN Control by object )
Artificial object AS Whole and Parts
QUESTIONS and EXAMPLES
ACTIONS and EXAMPLES
* a 1 *
Has the object a creator?
* a 1.1 *
Who creates the object?
[Person], [Organization] * a 1.2 * Is there the goal for existing the object?
[Goal] * a 16 * Is the goal of creation the object known?
[Goal], [Partial-known Object], [Information] * a 25 * Whether (1) given object can to exist very long in itself or (2) given object constantly needs for supporting and repairing?
[Work], [Process] * a 1.3 * Who supports the existence of the object?
[Work], [Person], [Organization] * a 13 * How the object was created? What the technology is used?
[Work], [System] * a 2 * Is it possible to destroy the object? * a 2.1 * How the destruction of the object can occur??
[Action], [Work] * a 23 * In wich case the object can to break?
[Work], [Set], [Situation], [Information], [Aspiration] [Cause - Consequence] * a 8 * Can the object to break? Is it hard to break the object? * a 3 * Is it possible to repeat the object and to create it once more?!
[Copying object] * a 4 * Whether the object belongs to a some type of objects?!
[Type of Objects], [Set] * a 5 * Has the object a some parameters or properties?!
[Object and its Properties], [Type of Objects], [Set] * a 6 * Has the object the owner?! Who is it?
[Object and Owner], [Person], [Organization] * a 7 * What age of the object? When the object was created?
[Moment of Time], [Period of Time] * a 9 * Who changed the object last time?
[Person], [Work] * a 10 * Does the modifications be making at regular intervals?
[Work], [Repeating Event], [Development] * a 11 * Does the contents of the object is modified by a person?
[Person], [Organization] * a 11.1 * What for the person modifies the object??
[Goal], [Work], [Action], [Cause - Consequence] * a 21 * Who can to modify the object?
[Set of Peoples] * a 11.2 * Does the object is modified by the one person or many?!
[Set of Peoples] * a 12 * Does the object is created for concrete limited period of time or for ever?
[Period of Time] * a 34 * Does the object was created for once-only using or for many times?
[Repeating Event], [Using] * a 17 * Who will be used of the object, only the creator of the object or other persons?
[Set of Peoples], [Using], [Work] * a 18 * How long the object may be useful?
[Period of Time], [Using] * a 19 * Does the object is the way for creating the other object or it is the self-goal?
[Goal], [Tool - Object - Action], [Using] * a 20 * Does the artificial object is built for (1) using or for (2) examination some ideas?
[Using], [Information], [Goal], [Assumption] * a 22 * What conditions is needed for existence the object?
[Work], [System], [Set], [Situation] * a 26 * What is the object used for now?
[Goal], [Process], [Work], [Using] * a 27 * What can be the object used for in general??
[Work], [Collection], [Using], [Possible - Impossible] * a 36 * Who use the object (directly or indirect)?
[Using], [Set of Peoples] * a 28 * Who can to use the object?
[Set of Peoples], [Using], [Possible - Impossible] * a 29 * Who know about the existence of the object?
[Work], [Set of Peoples], [Information] * a 30 * How a person can to know about the existence of the object?
[Object and Name], [Text], [Information], [Work] * a 31 * How the style of the object is original?
[Obvious and Nonusual] * a 32 * Does the object supposed the knowledge about the other relevant objects?
[Set], [Information], [Skill] * a 33 * Does the object is in order now, or out of order?
[System], [Error] * a 35 * Does the creation of the object is "creative" work or "routine" work?
[Work] * a 37 * Can you to create the object like that?
[Skill], [Type of Objects]
# A 1 #
To overview the object and to put it and its environment in order.
[System], [Type of Objects] # A 2 # To find another one possible kind of use for the object.
[Collection] [Freedom of Action], [Using] # A 3 # To find the method for publicize the object.
[Work] # A 4 # To make access other persons to the object more simple.
[Work], [Using] # A 5 # To make the using of the object by other persons more hard.
[ Artificial object AS (controlling object IN Control of the Object) ]
* b 1 * What can be controlled in the object?
* с 1 * What is the most important parts in the object?
If (1) the object was created by anybody (person or company), then the object offen carries the features of its creator. Although (2) there are objects, that haven't one concrete creator.
(1) Telecast: it strongly depends from its author and TV studio. (2) Moscow city.
This question introduced into consideration a fellow: person or company that have made the object.
(1) Furniture placing in the appartments: the creator is the owner of the appartments. (2) A car: the creator is a motor-car works.
(1) The persons, that had created the object or that have supportin the existence of the object (see question * a 1.3) may have the goal. But it is possible also that (2) the object was created not for a goal, but by natural order of events.
(1) Ostankino' TV Tower in Moscow: It is very complex and expensive object, and of course it can be created only for concrete goal. (2) The written letter: It is possible that the letter had written without any definite goal, for no particular reason.
The creation of the object and the suppoting of the object are different works, and they can be done by different persons (or companies).
Cottage. The cottage can be builded by the one person, but after this very other persons can to live in it and to support it.
There are objects, that (1) can be destroyed very easy, that (2) can be destroyed very hardly, that (3) almost impossible to destroy at all.
(1) textual file
(3) the big system of car roads
This question can be useful if it is needed t odestroy the object, or othervise to defence from destroying. This question gives an interesting point of view for the object in whole in a some cases.
(1) Old buiding. (2) Complex program in the process of its using. (3) Web-server: The question "How the web-server can be 'destroyed'?" gives interesting viewpoint on creation and supporting of the hypertext system in a web-server.
If answer is 'Yes' then it appears a big set of other questions and actions linked with the possibility to create repeatedly similar object, linked with the metaphor [Copying object]. Tis question is the semantic fork.
A sheduler of your day. We can to attempt to repeat a some very good days once more.
If answer is 'yes' then it appears many other questions and actions linked with the metaphor [Type of objects]. That question is semantic knot. That question introduces into a circle of attention not only the type, but also set of other similar objects, belonging to the same type
Telecast: Some telecasts are made as telecasts, belonging to some type. When we think about a type of telecasts, we begin to think about the other telecasts of this type.
If answer is 'yes' then we can (like in the question * a 4 *) introduce into a circle of attention both the type of objects and set of similar objects. Moreover we can consider a set of parameters or properties as separate set. A given question offers to look at artificial object by metaphor [Object and its Properties].
Toys for the children. If toys becomes much, it is possible to look at them by betaphor [Object and its Properties], to find different types of toys and etc..
If (1) the owner exist, it is very important circumstance. We should decide (obviously or not) - how we treat to the owner of the object before any actions with given object. Furthermore there are (2) objects that has not any owner.
(1) Rhyme. If we want to print some rhyme or poem in the newspaper, journal or to place it on Web-sever, we must to know - who has the copyrights on given rhyme or poem. (2) A path in a wood: the owner does not exist.
That question hiddenly introduced the history of the object in the circle of attention. The greater the age of the object, the greater various events can occur with the object. Many artificial objects become worse with time.
Bridge through the river. If the bridge is constructed long ago, it can not maintain heavy motor vehicles.
It is (1) very easily to break or to spoil one objects, and it is (2) very hard another.
(2) Operating system on the computer: It is easy to spoil the instance of operating system, but it is very hard "to spoil" that type of operating systems in whole.
The person, who changed anything in the complex artificial object last time knows the current state of the object better of all other persons.
Car. The person, who did essential repair of a given car last time, knows its state better of all.
If 'yes' then there is a some permanent work linked with the object.
(1) Highway. If the highway is significant, it is necessary to repair it regularly.
(2) Letter. When we wrote, sent the letter, and somebody read it at once, it is not necessary to change the letter.
The considered object can (1) to be modified by the people, and then it is one situation, and can (2) to be modified under influence of external environment. Probably, (3) it is changed and by the people and by the external environment.
(1) System of files and directories on the computer' hard disk.
(2) Electricity transmission line.
It is necessary to spend a certain efforts and to execute the work for to change the complex artificial object. More often such work is made with a particular goal.
For example, the work can be made for supporting the artificial object in a normal state. Or for using of the object for something.
I.e. the visible action for changing (1) can have a definite goal. However, the changes (2) can occur not because of any goal, simply under pressure of external circumstances.
Changes in a telecast system. It can occure because of the particular purposes of a management TV company. But it is possible, that any talented people discharged from the TV company and the company can not continue to support the telecast.
If the object is modified by the different peoples, it appeared the new aspect: these changes can be unconcerted with one another, can to contradict one another.
The computers in office can be mounted not for definite person, but for "any" in office. The state of files, directories, operating system, program set in that computers can be very strange and can to change many times during a day.
If the object is created (1) for a limited time, then the most important in it is the consequences, which can arise from its existence, and the other objects, which can arise because of its existence.
If (2) object aim to make "for ever", the most important in it is that the given object will exist, that it will change a general situation "to the best direction".
(1) A group of specialist: Leaders of a company can to ask of specialists from different divisions to work together during a little period for deciding a some problem.
(2) World-Wide-Web: A big company develops a WWW-server. As a rule it is supposed that the server will work and be developed "for ever" (while the current technology will cahnged or while the company will exist).
The creation of any complex artificial object is a definite work, a definite technology. That work can be much more complex organized object or system in itself, rather the object-result.
Inner tube for bicycle. The technology of their creation requires a certain level of an industry, requires the certain equipment. It is practically impossible to make an inner tube for bicycle in home conditions.
As a rule (1), the goal of creation of the object is eviden. However, there are (2) the objects haved incomprehensible goals of creation. It is naturally to look on that object by metaphor [Partial-known Object].
The files The files, included in the structure of a modern complex program. As a rule the large program systems has tens of files for very various purposes. Goal of many files is known only for the developers of the program.
If the object (1) is created only for using by their creator, this one situation. And it is quite another situation, if the object (2) is created for using by other peoples.
In the first case it is possible to neglect many minor aspects of quality, for the sake of main. In the second case it is necessary to execute more complex work and to make object qualitative from the different aspects.
(1) You can to write the main path of the scientific research "for yourself". It will be the text, that had minimun of words, phrases, sentencies, lists, that is need for You can restore in memory the contents of the research.
(2) If You want to put the research into shape of paper for journal, You must to write quite another text.
If as a result of the answer to this question you will realize, that the given object can be useful only very a short time, or on the contrary, the object can be useful during long period of time, that understanding can help You rightly to order Your forces.
If You find Web-server, that can be useful for You during long time, then You can to remember its URL-address, to copy the main documents, to begin correspondence an so on.
That question is the semantic knot: if (1) the object is a tool for creation of the other object, then it is important to look on the object by metaphor [Tool - Object - Action]. In other case (2) the metaphor [Using] seemed more important.
(1) Program of telecasts. You can buy the program for to know when we can to record interesting film by VCR.
(2) Recorded movie.
That question is the same as the question * a 19 * Does the object is the way for creating the other object or it is the self-goal?
(1) Elementary editor of ASCII-files in Norton Commander: all is subordinated to simplicity and naturality of use, minimum of additional ideas leaving for framework of the idea of a simple textual file.
(2) Editor Word 6.0 for Windows: That editor have the big set of abstract concepts: styles, paragraphs, language of the paragraph, master document, template and etc..
Not each person сan to change anything in the complex object. The more complex and unique that object. the less of quantaty of such people. Sometimes this aspect happens important.
The poem. An attempt to continue the poem and to keep the style of its author is very difficult work.
Each object exists within the framework of some environment. To realize -- which conditions are necessary for existence of given object, it is necessary to do certain analytical work, to look at object and its environment by metaphor System, and to list the set of objects, processes, circumstances of external environment, from which the object depends.
Car. For normal using the car it is necessary many conditions: availability of the highways and roads, opportunity to hide it from bad weather and from thiefs, opportunity to purchase a petrol, oil and spare parts, skill to repair of the car, reasonably a high level of driving, and etc..
Is offered to execute some analytical work and to make the list of situations, in which the given object can be spoiled. It is easily to make out obvious possible situations, but if to consider the less probable and the more unusual situations, the list will make the more difficult. The knowledge nonobvious, but probable situations, in which given object can deteriorate, is expert knowledge, it is of value.
Rings of a electrical kitchen-range are spoiled, if we'll out very cold things on hot rings.
The modern TV sets can deteriorate, if a too lot of dust put in them.
That question is the semantic knot: if (2) the object needs in permanent supporting, then it is necessary to think about a some permanent work, about the process of supporting. Sometimes the support of the object becames comparable with expenditure for creation the object.
Many-storeyed apartment house in a city. If in the apartment house one of services - water drain will not constantly work though, it will cause very serious consequences.
There are the programs, which (1) do not practically require any corrections and updatings, for example: wc - program of count of lines, words and symbols in a file, uuencode and uudecode - program of translation of files in 8-bit code page to 7-bit and back.
Otherwise, (2) development of the large complex programs like Excel, Word 6, AutoCad requires permanent observation of new ideas in the appropriate area, new external formats of data.
This question enters into a circle of attention the present time - which process is now connected to considered object? That with it make?
Car. You suddenly realize, that your automobile is really used only that time in some months to go in other city in the visitors to the friend.
This question offers you to execute some work and to imagine a collection of possible uses of given object.
A system of knowledge about possible use of some object the author names "postsemantic", to this theme work [Ovanesbekov 95a "Postsemantic as the phenomenon"] is devoted.
If You have VCR, we can not only
- to look through films, but also
- to copy films for the friends;
- to record films showed in a inconvenient time;
- to record a news for more careful viewing;
- to record films not for self, but for the nearest friends;
- to look educational transfers;
- to look the fragments from favourite films, for changing of mood;
- carefully to consider separate frames and to study the actor's work;
- to consider the separate frames and to study works of art designer and operator;
- to look amateur films of your friends,
- simply to record music, without the image, as by audio tape record;
- "to divide" simultaneously showed telecasts - one to look on a TV set, and other to record on a VCR and to look it after;
The given question enters into a circle attention set of the people, which could use given object. If we have an opportunity to change given object, then it can be necessary to change object for more convenient using of the object by a possible set of the users.
This question supplements a question * 36 * "Who use the object?"
Web-server. In the book [December, Randall 95] is spoken, that while designing of the new Web-server it is very useful to imagine a circle of the potential users.
To inform to other people about existence of given object is nontrivial work. The given question enters into a circle of attention (1) the set of the peoples, which knows about the existence of the object, (2) the set of the peoples, which could to know about it in future and (3) the work - how to inform them.
You have written the new program. Usually firstly a little peoples knows about it. If You want to inform many peoples about Your program, you need or to participate in exhibitions, or to place your program as freeware on CD-ROM, or to place it on Web-servers, or to print the articles or advertising in the journals and newspapers and etc..
There are objects that (1) is known almost everyone. But (2) an overwhelming part of objects is known for separate persons only.
That fact connected with the problem. If You want to inform some person "P" about the existence of the object "O", You may have many ways to do it. If You want to inform somebody about the existence of some object impersonally, You must to invent the method, You must to do some analytical work.
At the World-Wide Web the problem becomes simpler.
(1) Almost everyone knows about the existence of grand countries like USA, Germany, China, about grand events, like Second World War, about leaders of grand countries, about existence of television.
(2) You can to write a paper, but before You publishe it, only a little peoples may to know about it. But if You had published the paper, it is possible that nobody reads it.
There are objects (1) for that the originality and uncommonless of their style are negative quality. Contrary, there are objects of other sort (2) for that the originality and uncommonless of their style are one of conditions of quality of that objects.
(1) Some large manufacturers of computers even elementary details makes in their own firm style. For example, in the Compaq' computers the screws are made under especial five-coal screwdriver. At small firms assembling computer by order, it causes problems.
(2) For works of art, on the contrary, the originality of the style, of author's view of the world is important condition for success of the work.
Some objects (1) are made so, that the developers assume that the user had a opportunity to be acquainted with other close objects. But, certainly, many objects (2) are made without correlation with other close objects.
(1) Modern dialogue systems nonobviously assume, that you had knew other similar systems. Therefore many elements of the menu, panel have become "standard" ( File, Options, Help ).
(1) Many scientific articles are written so, that the author assumes, that the reader already acquaints with a set of important things in that problem area, with a some valueable articles and etc..
(2) The developers of modern TV sets try to describe their products so that they could easily be taken advantage by any person, without any preliminary experience.
The objects created artificially are in due course spoiled. Occasionally they need to be repaired (see below action [Artificial object # A 1 #]). The given question enters into a circle of attention a degree of the "order" or "disorder" of given object.
However there are such objects, what to realize - whether they are in the order or not, is not simple.
Your own car: Does the all parties are good in it? the engine? brakes?
If we are interested not so much by the object, but just the process of its creation, the question "Does the creation of the object is "creative" work or "routine" work ?" is cardinal, it is the semantic knot.
Far from about any work it is possible precisely to say: this is "creative", this is "routine", there are many work that are (3) mix of both kinds.
Furthermor, even the most routine works, like the washing at home, by the certain approach, if to be aimed to very high quality of work, or to maximum speed of fulfilment, or to the accounting of maximal quantity of aspects, are transformed from routine to creative.
Many routine works, like " to type the text on a computer", if the person is only learnt to do them are creative in the initial period of time.
In whole, the question "What is the creative work?", or more wider - "In which consists a phenomenon of creativity?" is very large and complex. The author can offer only relatively rough hypothesis. It is possible to try to understand the degree routinity as the quantity of ready stereotypes, presented in given work. "What creates the stereotypes" can be understanding as "creativity".
(1) If you have videocamera, you can record "home films" simply for your pleasure, but hence you fall in the sphere of creativity. (3) You can to record scenes by your videocamera for registration of a certain events, then certainly the creativity will be present in the your work, but the essential part of routine works too. (2) If you had a big experience of work with videocamera, and we did very trivial filming, simply registering of events in one field of sight, without moving of camera (for example, we records the performance of any puplic figure in a hall), this work is mostly routine.
The set of the people who use the object, is important entity, closely connected with the object and determining many aspects (as the existence of given object, as its further evolution.
Using of the object can be a different degree of inderectness: maybe, it is possible directly to control by the object (direct use); maybe, it is possible to lean on existence of the phenomena, created by given artificial object (more indirect use).
Ostankino' TV tower: (1) there are an engineers, which serve the tower as building, (2) there is the staff of TV companies, servicing transmitting TV equipment, (3) tere are TV viewers, (4) there are the people which has not a TV set, but learn the news from those who has the TV set. All it is different degrees if indirectness.
That question introduced the concrete man, his material and creative possibilities, the process of creation of the object, possible variations of the object into the area of attention.
Obvious man can create only some objects. The most of objects that are around us or was created by nature, or was created by many-year long work of big group of people.
(1) The man, that works in his cottage garden can to reproduce various ideas of organization of the garden from his neighbours.
(1) To build three-floor cottage by oneself is work on the margin of the possibilities of obvious man.
(2) It is practically impossible to reproduce many "obvious" things like electric lamp, sport shoes, electric pin, etc, without special environment.
# A 1
# To overview the object and to put it and its environment in order.
[System], [Type of Objects]
The artificial objects in overwhelming number of cases requires in the person, who will look after them and to order them if necessary. Usually it is done by the owner of the object.
To induce the order is the typical work; having begun to induce the order in one place it is possible easily to spread to other place or object and etc..
Even it is possible to state the idea, that "to induce the order" is a type of work.
To make the weekly cleaning in the apartment.
To see the directories and files on the hard disk of your computer and to delete all superfluous.
This action is the analogue of the idea [* a 27 ** What can be the object used for in general??] but not in the form of a question, rather in the form of action that is the consequence of the question. To search the new possible applications of the object - it means practically to investigate its postsemantic. to assemble a collection of applications.
You have purchased a household device, that is new for you: deep-freezer, microwave furnace, kitchen combine, fax, videorecorder, personal computer. Naturallly, some time after the purchasing you will open for self the new and new ways of use of this device.
If you have made any object for wide use, you certainly, need find the way to inform about the existence of given object to greater quantity of the people as it is possible. To find the way is the certain analytical work.
Your organization have created the Web-server. One of ways to declare it is to place some information material for very wide use. For a example, on the server www.ivvs.ru there is the catalogue of Russian and soviet films except the scientific information.
If given object a number of the people uses, frequently the process of use can or be facilitated, or on the contrary, to do more hard ( see a next action [# A 5]). To make access and use of given object easier is the work.
Modern TV sets has a remote control panek fo more easier use.
Some objects should not be easily accessible. It may be the objects, from which many people (1) depend, or it may be dangerous objects simply (2), or it may be the objects dangerous for the small children (3), or it may be the objects, being private property (4) and etc.. To make their use more complex - often it is certain work.
(1) To place the main distribution boards of the electric power in the residential house in a separate closed room.
(2) To force the protection of warehouse with a weapon.
(3) To remove medicines, toxic insecticicdes, knifes, razor in a place with difficult access.
(4) To establish the password for a entrance in your a personal computer.
To start of the file
1996 march 28 th - 1998 март 03 вт
About the project "Knowledge Base MET" in whole
About the author of the project
About the IHPCS RAS
e-mail: Leonid Ovanesbekov <email@example.com>
To start of the file
1996 march 28 th - 1998 март 03 вт