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Institute of High-Performance Computer System,
Russian Academy of Sciences

Knowledge Base MET

Short Pragmatic Description and Index

number of the work paper: (90-met-pr)

Short pragmatic description (see below)

Index for all materails of the project

Short structural description

Description for the User (41kb)

Scientific report (152kb)

Collection of metaphoric schemes

Example-scenario of using Knowledge Base MET for research

Chronology of the changing at the server (News)

About the autor

Warning: The English version of the Project is very limited now. It consists of 7 files only. Other references are given in the Russian version which is typed in Latin letters.

Please, dear readers, excuse me, my written English is not perfect and I have very little financial support. The English version exists only as an example for now. I hope to develop it in the future.

Knowledge base MET: Short pragmatic description

Knowledge base MET is experimental information system, in which is collected the some set of "typical ideas", appliable to a wide spectrum of various situations, that can be appeared as in the real life, as in a technical domains.

The main foundation of the Knowledge base MET is the list of "typical situations" or "metaphoric schemas", as Whole and Parts, Set, Center - Periphery, Cause - Consequence, Freedom of Action, Text, Work and others. Full list see in "Collection of Metaphoric Schemes".

Every typical situation or metaphoric scheme is described as the set of the typical idea-questions and typical idea-actions.

It is supposed that for using the Knowledge base MET it is needed to do the next steps:


The potential user of the Knowledge base MET has a domain, in which there is the problem. The user wants to use by Knowledge base MET for finding new (for him) points of view to the problem.

For example, a some original program was developed in Your company. That program is product for sale, but very little peoples knows about it and it wasn't saled. You want to do something for saling that program.


The user must find (by own forces) the correlations between the objects and phenomena in the his domain and metaphoric schemes that are in the Knowledge base MET.

For example.
(program Х for users) is Partial known Object.
(assimilation of the program Х) is Work.
(every functional possibility in the program Х) is Freedom of Action.
(the set of potential users) is Set of Peoples.
(the class of programs like the Х) is Type of Objects.
(other programs and the program Х among then) is System.


For each that correlation the user had to view the description of the metaphoric scheme and to choise the questions and actions, that can give him the new important points of view for his problem.

For example, You look the correlation:
(other programs and the program X among them) is System.
and we had find the questions that give us important points of view (for ex.):

* a 6 * How do elements of the system interactions among them?
[Link], [Cause - Consequence]

* a 9 * How often the state of the system is changed – it its appeared a new elements, links?

* a 15 * What object is the cause for the structure of the system?
[Cause - Consequence]


To apply the 3) for each correlation the user can to accumulate a some set (Collection) of important ideas, points of view important for him.

That collection of new ideas and points of view for the problem is the main cycle-result of using Knowledge base MET.

The most of the questions and actions has so called "postmetaphors" - the references to new correlations, that may be appeared in the process of answer to the question, or in the process if concretization of action. Postmetaphors be placed at the end of the question or action in the square brackets.

After analysing of the collection of new important ideas and points of view the user can to do next step and to attempt to find a new set of correlations, partially took the correlations simply from postmetaphors, partially add by self. After that he can to do steps 1) - 4) again and to repeat the cycle of problem investigation.

In whole, we may say that Knowledge base MET offers to alternate the periods of "natural analyse" and periods of "metaphoric analyse" - analyse of the problem by using Knowledge base MET - in the problem solving/

In that process Knowewdge base MET has a role of the structuring container of typical ideas, or, speaking by more abtract language, has a role of the container for the common-sense knowledge.

Knowledge base MET is the result of scientific investigation done by private initative of the author (with support IHPCS of RAS). That investigation essentially based on the ideas speaked by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in [Lakoff, Lohnson 80], [Lakoff 87], [Johnson 87]. Author tends to develop practically useful information system, that would help to do once more step in the scientific direction developing by Lakoff and Johnson.

Knowledge base MET may be used for:
a) For analyse scientific and technical papers, projects.
b) For support in the process of scientific research (see text 97-mex).
c) Knowledge base MET can radically change to form of scientific and technical papers: in a paper placed at Web-server, at the end of any chapter one may to add the hypertext references to ideas and typical situations from Knowledge base MET. By the action one may evidently to represent important semantic layer - the layer o fusing ideas. (For example see "Knowledge base MET. Scientific report").
d) Potentially Knowledge base MET may be used rather as the problem solving tool for the real life of the man.

At present time Knowledge base MET is in the state of development, the author tends to increase the set of presenting ideas and metaphoric schemes. Therefore, if You have any notes, proposals, or new ideas for placing into Knowledge base MET in the form of typical questions or typical actions (with correlation to a some metaphoric scheme), please, write me by


Alternative names for the project:

1) Knowledge base MET
2) Catalogue of metaphoric schemes
3) System of technical ideas
4) Encyclopedia of common sense

To the start of the file

Scientific report
The project in whole
About the author
About the IHPCS

e-mail: Leonid Ovanesbekov <>

The Knowledge Base MET is placed on the:

References to the logical server are at: The List of Russian Web Servers ,

1990 Feb 15 -- 1998 Mar 03 Tu